What is Disease X; can this potential threat be deadlier than Covid?

The world is still reeling from the COVID-19 pandemic, which has claimed over 6 million lives and disrupted the lives of billions more. But scientists and public health experts are already warning that the next pandemic could be even worse.

In September 2023, Dame Kate Bingham, who chaired the UK’s Vaccine Taskforce, warned that the next pandemic could take 50 million lives. She has dubbed this potential pandemic “Disease X” and says it could be 20 times deadlier than COVID-19.

Disease X is a hypothetical pathogen that could cause a severe pandemic. It is not known what Disease X is, but it is likely to be a zoonotic disease, meaning that it can be transmitted from animals to humans.

Bingham’s warning is a sobering reminder that the world is not ready for the next pandemic. Despite the lessons learned from COVID-19, many countries are still underfunding public health systems and failing to invest in research and development of new vaccines and treatments for infectious diseases.

There are a number of factors that could make the next pandemic even worse than COVID-19. One factor is climate change. Climate change is disrupting ecosystems and increasing the risk of zoonotic diseases emerging.

Another factor is globalization. People and goods are now moving around the world faster than ever before, which makes it easier for diseases to spread.

Finally, the rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to global health. AMR occurs when bacteria become resistant to antibiotics, making them difficult or impossible to treat.

If Disease X were to emerge, it would have a devastating impact on the world. Millions of people would die, and the global economy would be crippled. It is therefore essential that we invest in pandemic preparedness and response now.

Latest Update:

On September 26, 2023, Dame Kate Bingham, who chaired the UK’s Vaccine Taskforce, warned that Disease X could be 20 times deadlier than Covid-19. She also said that the next pandemic might already be on its way and that Covid-19 was not that lethal. The new pandemic has been dubbed Disease X by the World Health Organization (WHO), and Bingham says it could be 20 times deadlier than Coronavirus. Bingham told Daily Mail, “The world will have to prepare for mass vaccination drives and deliver the doses in record time…Imagine Disease X is as infectious as measles with the fatality rate of Ebola (67 per cent). Somewhere in the world, it’s replicating, and sooner or later, somebody will start feeling sick.”

What is Disease X?

Disease X is a hypothetical infectious disease that could cause a future pandemic. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines Disease X as “a pathogen – known/potentially unknown that can cause a large-scale, serious pandemic leading to mass-scale human disease.”

Disease X could be any type of pathogen, including a virus, bacteria, or fungus. It could be a new pathogen that has never been seen before, or it could be an existing pathogen that has mutated in a way that makes it more dangerous.

How Could Disease X be Deadlier than Covid-19?

Disease X could be deadlier than Covid-19 for a number of reasons. First, it could be more contagious than Covid-19. This means that it would spread more easily from person to person. Second, it could have a higher fatality rate than Covid-19. This means that a higher percentage of people who become infected with Disease X would die. Third, Disease X could be more difficult to treat than Covid-19. This means that there might not be effective vaccines or treatments available for Disease X.

How Can We Prepare for Disease X?

The best way to prepare for Disease X is to invest in public health infrastructure and research. This includes funding for disease surveillance, outbreak response, and vaccine development. We should also work to improve global health equity so that everyone has access to quality healthcare.

Here are some specific things that we can do to prepare for Disease X:

  1. Invest in research to develop new vaccines and treatments for emerging infectious diseases. Investing in research is crucial as it helps us understand the potential threats and develop countermeasures.
  2. Strengthen global disease surveillance and outbreak response capabilities. Early detection and rapid response are key to containing the spread of infectious diseases.
  3. Improve global health equity so that everyone has access to quality healthcare. Health equity ensures that no one is left vulnerable to diseases due to lack of resources or access to care.
  4. Educate the public about the importance of good hygiene practices and vaccination. Awareness and preventive measures are vital in controlling disease transmission.
  5. Develop and implement contingency plans for responding to a pandemic caused by Disease X. Preparedness plans ensure a swift and coordinated response in case of an outbreak.

In addition to the above, we can also prepare for Disease X by:

  • Promoting biodiversity conservation and sustainable land use practices. Preserving natural habitats reduces the risk of pathogens jumping from wildlife to humans.
  • Reducing the use of antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs. Responsible antibiotic use prevents the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria.
  • Improving food safety standards. Stringent standards minimize the risk of foodborne illnesses, which can exacerbate pandemics.
  • Strengthening international cooperation on public health. Collaboration ensures a more effective response to global health threats.

By taking these steps, we can reduce the risk of a future pandemic caused by Disease X and mitigate the damage if such a pandemic does occur.

Additional Thoughts:

  • Disease X is a reminder that we need to be prepared for the possibility of new and emerging infectious diseases.
  • We need to invest in public health infrastructure and research so that we can quickly detect and respond to pandemics.
  • We also need to work to improve global health equity so that everyone has access to quality healthcare.
  • By taking these steps, we can protect ourselves and our communities from the threat of Disease X and other emerging infectious diseases.


Disease X represents a potential threat that should not be taken lightly. The warnings from experts like Dame Kate Bingham remind us of the importance of proactive measures to prevent and mitigate the impact of such a disease. By investing in research, strengthening healthcare systems, and fostering international cooperation, we can enhance our readiness to face Disease X and protect global health.


1. What is the origin of the term “Disease X”?

The term “Disease X” is used to describe a hypothetical infectious disease that could cause a future pandemic. It is a term coined by the World Health Organization (WHO) to represent an unknown pathogen with pandemic potential.

2. Why is Disease X considered a potential threat?

Disease X is considered a potential threat because it could have characteristics that make it more contagious, deadly, or difficult to treat than existing infectious diseases. This uncertainty underscores the need for preparedness.

3. How can individuals protect themselves from Disease X?

Individuals can protect themselves from Disease X by following good hygiene practices, staying informed about public health guidelines, and getting vaccinated if vaccines become available.

4. Are there any known cases of Disease X at present?

As of now, there are no known cases of Disease X. It is a hypothetical concept used to emphasize the importance of preparedness for future pandemics.

5. What lessons can we learn from the Covid-19 pandemic in preparing for Disease X?

The Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for robust healthcare systems, early detection and response, and global cooperation. These lessons can inform our preparedness for Disease X and other potential threats.

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